Since the end of World War II, and the introduction of programs in colors, the television has continued to take a growing place in our households. Indeed, initially marginal and reserved for wealthy categories, it is present today in no less than 98% of households, compared with just 7% in the 70s. The television has become a media of mass, and although threatened by the advent of the internet and social networks, it remains undoubtedly the most popular activity in the world. Indeed, it is far ahead of two other cultural activities the most practiced that are music and reading.
How many people watch TV?
According to the figures from the History survey of life achieved in 2003, 88% of people in the survey declare having watched television in the last 12 months against only 72% who say they have listened to music or 67% read a book. If agrees to agree on its omnipresence, we should answer the following questions:
· What social disparities are hiding behind such a practice?
· Is television the reflects disparities in class, age or sex?
· Is it an indispensable practice?
· Is it the phenomenon of reality shows that influences on the amount of time spent in front of the TV?
If there is a hobby whose practice is preponderant in the life of modern people, it is well of television. In fact, we are moving, in 2003, average 2 hours and 51 minutes a day in front of the television is 49 full days a year or 9 years of our life (base life expectancy 81.5 years old). But can it be said that it is indispensable to the people? It seems so for more than one person out of two.
Indeed, to the following question: “Is that it would be hard for you to do without watching television; would you miss it if you did not do it anymore?», 39% answer« yes, it is sure “and 21%” Yes, probably “. TV appears essential or at least important in people’s lives but this reports to the question “Is television the same for everyone?” Where is he differentiated according to various criteria socio-demographic and is therefore similar to social fact?
Women watch TV more than men
First, practices based on gender are differentiated since women watch more television than men, and that at any age. Indeed, women are average 2:57 in front of the television a day against 2:43 for men, 14 minutes more. This difference corresponds to a difference of 91 hours over 1 year and 304 days over a lifetime.
This strong presence of women in front of the small screen results first of all from the targeting of advertisers and so editorialists on the famous housewife of under 50 years old. So, women are more many men watching talk shows, reality shows, game shows, and series. Another explanation is look at the age pyramid side. Indeed, women are more numerous that men at advanced ages, gold, we will see later, older individuals are older they watch TV.
Finally, we must look at the participation rate of women and beneficiaries of parental leave since the women find themselves more often than men on the margins of working life.
TV against the weight of years
Differentiated by sex, practices televisions are also according to the age. In indeed, there is a positive correlation between age and time spent watching television. So, while the time spent in front of the television before the age of 60 exceeds not the 3 hours, it crosses this threshold for individuals aged 60 and over.
Moreover, the dependence displayed with respect to television is it also increases with age. Indeed, the more
interviewed individuals are older the more they report that they would miss television, if they passed. So the elderly aged 80 and over would have difficulty in 80% of cases compared with only 60% for individuals aged 18-29 years. The television appears so as a real substitute for loneliness growing that accompanies aging.
Is TV a substitute for the social bond?
In the same vein the practice television is particularly dense among people suffering from isolation. First of all, are the individuals on the margins of the working life who seem the most attached to television. Moreover, it appears that a fragility of the social bond is correlated with an important time spent in front of the television. In Indeed, the individuals declaring that they had no contact with friends or with their family spend 3h12 in front of the small screen against 2:42 for individuals with saw 1 to 3 times a month their family and friends.
The phenomenon of reality shows as a social phenomenon
Reality shows or Reality TV – is a new television genre, appeared in the 1990s and took a significant scale in the television landscape. These programs are part of a new cultural context that show a reversal of social values where the individual becomes central. This presents reality television as a social phenomenon.
Results from a series of individual interviews seeking to discover the motivations for watching reality shows stands out that watching these programs can be motivated more or less consciously by the willingness of viewers to reinforce their social ties, to position themselves and to redefine their individual and social identity, to value themselves and to give themselves a better understanding of social reality.
Reality TV is defined as a program in which one is interested in behaviors of “ordinary people 3” not subject to a script. However, this definition is questioned given the great diversity grouped under this term. Since its appearance with the show Big Brother of Dutch origin in the 1990s, reality television became more and more important in television programming.
Nonetheless, It is clear from the outset that so-called “reality” shows are not a genre in themselves but
they fall under the types of existing programs (games, other entertainment, magazines, etc.). The like “reality” does not exist, there are only so-called “reality” shows. Publishers and the producers themselves hardly use the term “reality”, except perhaps in their sense restricted to “reality television confinement” because it covers a diverse and blurred set of many subcategories share only the term “reality”; it does not constitute
an operative classification category. However, many programs of different genres are perceived as such because of certain common characteristics.